Summarizing Discontiguous Networks

There are a series of posts by INE, I believe the author is Brian McGahan (A very smart guy to say the least), that explains how to optimally create an ACL with discontiguous networks.

You can find the series of posts here

Binary Math Part1
Binary Math Part1 – Answers
Binary Math Part2
Binary Math Part2 – Answers

I apologies if I’ve given the credit to the wrong INE instructor, you guys are great!

I attempted to summarize the process that is so wonderfully explained in great detail in the above posts. The scenario is below. Just after the scenario is the summary. The answer to the scenario is left out.

Create an ACL to use as an access-class on the VTY ports.  Use as few lines as possible.  You must use two “deny” statements in your ACL.

The following hosts should be allowed to telnet into your router:

Summarizing discontiguous networks





Forwarding Equivalent Class

Forwarding Equivalent Class or FEC is a new term to me. It is a fancy term to describe the mapping between MPLS labels and IPv4 or IPv6 prefixes and is fundamental to understanding MPLS.

I first learned MPLS some years ago and this is the first time that I have come across this vocabulary. I guess i’ll start using it to sound super smart in my next bar conversation on MPLS…right

In any case, after enabling MPLS Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) and a LDP peer session is established to a neighbor, labels will begin to be associated to destination prefixes. Routers will use the MPLS LFIB instead of the IP routing table to “switch” traffic.

Label Distribution can be done in three ways

  • Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) – advertises labels for IGP learned routes
  • MP-BGP – Advertises labels for BGP learned routes
  • RSVP – Used for MPLS Traffic Engineering (MPLS TE)

It’s important to remember that LDP, MP-BGP, RSVP perform label distribution or in other words impose labels onto routes. They have advantages in their distribution of labels which is why there is more than one option but something to keep in mind when talking about Label Distribution.

So the term itself isn’t actually all that necessary to remember, which is in difference with in my opening comments but thought it was interesting vocabulary.


CCIE journey update

June 1, 2018 will mark two months into my CCIE studies. I thought I would share with you where I am and how I am feeling.

So after two months i’m feeling good. I’m somewhere around 50-55% through the written blue print and maybe a little less for the lab blue print.

I have banked 82 hours worth of theory and 78 hours worth of labs! This is only the beginning!

I currently sit nose deep in BGP. I have about 60 labs that I want to get through for this topic before I move on to VPN technologies.

So far so good. There are times of doubt however. Its almost inevitable, you look through the blueprint and its daunting. There is sooooo much information. I start to ask myself if this is something I can actually do? The answer is yes, it just takes time. I know this.

From the out side I feel like I’m making this look easy, my wife and others may object; yet inside, i’m tired, doubtful, excited, nervous. It’s overwhelming! My wife’s support along with co-workers, family and friends are helping me continue to push.  I am more confident than I have ever been talking about theory and technology with others. Its a great feeling.

I am still unsure when I will sit for the written portion. I am thinking some time in September.

I still have a ways to go but I am truly enjoying my studies so far!




EIGRP Floating Summarization

When you create summaries in EIGRP, the router automatically creates a route that points to a Null 0 interface.

This Null 0 interface serves as a bit bucket to prevent the router from forwarding traffic for destinations inside the summary address that it doesn’t have a longer match for. This is also known as Null routed.

This is true for OSPF and BGP summarization as well..

The administrative distance for summary routes have an AD of 5 by default. Knowing this we can configure a route with an AD of 1-4 to take precedence over our summary route.

Here is what I mean.

A simple EIGRP topology with R4, R5, and R8. Full EIGRP connectivity between nodes.


Note: Lo1 has been created on R4 and R5 and advertised into the EIGRP process.

Lets configure a default route on R4 Ethernet segment towards R5.


On R5, let’s check for the route to R4 Lo1 – R5s CEF table matches our summary route to reach


Let’s check on R8. R8 just like R5 has a CEF entry for that matches the summary route that R4 generated. R8 and R5 don’t have a specific route for because the summary route it suppressing the more specific route from being install into their routing tables, which is why we need to consult the CEF for the route.


R8 can pint as of now.

Let’s configure a summary address for the Lo1 prefix’s on R5 for R8 on the shared Ethernet segment between them.


Below you can see that R8 received our new summary address for the Lo1 prefixes. We can see this in the out put Lets try to ping – R4s Lo1.



Pings to R4 – fail. Pings to R5 – are successful because R5 has this address locally configured.

Lets see what R5 has to say about the route to


We can see that R5 can reach via Null 0. Lets ping


This can’t work! Our packets are Null routed!

So to get around this lets configure a static route on R5 to R4 for


R5 now knows about with a AD of 1. Let’s see if this fixes R8s reachability.


R8 can reach!

This could have also been solved by poisoning the Null 0 interface from R5s RIB with an AD of 255.


The difference here is that the Null 0 interface found on R5 is completely removed from the routing table.

Credit: INE


EIGRP Wide Metrics

EIGRP Classic metrics couldn’t differentiate between anything faster than 10 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.

Below is the EIGRP classic composite metric

EIGRP composite cost metric = 256*((K1*Scaled Bw) + (K2*Scaled Bw)/(256 – Load) + (K3*Scaled Delay)*(K5/(Reliability + K4)))

This can be simplified to 256*(Scaled Bw + Scaled Delay)

Here is a break down of what this means

EIGRP uses one or more vector metrics in the calculation of the composite cost metric (the formula above), here they are.


Out of these vector metrics Bandwidth and Delay are the most commonly used to produce the composite cost metric.

Metric weights are monitored by K values. The K values are integers from 0 to 128. The integers and the vector metrics, most commonly (bandwidth and delay) are used to calculate the overall EIGRP composite cost metric.

K1 and K3 are the only default constants used in the composite formula. (There are 5 K values) – K1,K3 = 1 K2,K4,K5 = 0

Here’s an example


We want to find the composite metric between R1 and R2s lo100 –

First we need to get the Scaled Bandwidth with the below formula. The bandwidth of the link is 1G.

Scaled Bw = 10^7 / Interface Bandwidth

We have to express the 1G interface in Kilobits. Formula would look like this.

Scaled Bw = 10^7 / 1000000
Scaled Bw = 10000000 / 1000000
Scaled Bw = 10

Second we need to find the Scaled Delay with the below formula. The Delay is 5010 microseconds.

Scaled Delay = (Delay/10)
Scaled Delay = (5010/10)
Scaled Delay = 501

Note: Delay is cumulative along the path to the destination prefix.

Now we can fill in our simplified composite formula

256*(10 + 501) = 130861

Composite metric is 130861



EIGRP wide metrics were introduced to assist in scaling for high bandwidth interfaces. EIGRP wide metrics offer the following:

  • 64 – bit metric calculation (compared to the 32 – bit metric of Classic EIGRP)
  • 128 – bit metric for the RIB
  • 65536 – Base Metric (compared to 256)
  • Bandwidth express in picoseconds (compared to tens of microseconds)
  • K6 ( reserved for future use and are known as “Extended Metrics”)
    • Jitter
    • Energy
    • Quiescent

Here is the wide metric formula

Metric = [(K1*Minimum Throughput + {K2*Minimum Throughput} / 256-Load) + (K3*Total Latency) + (K6*Extended Attributes)]* [K5/(K4 + Reliability)]

Bandwidth is now Throughput
Delay is now Latency.

Because we now have a larger base metric (65536) we can now account for higher speed links and because we use picoseconds this fixes delay issues.

Here are the simplified formulas for computing the composite cost metric. The vector metrics we care about are Throughput and Latency.

Composite Cost Metric = (K1*Minimum Throughput) + (K3*Total Latency)

To find Minimum Throughput use

Minimum Throughput = (107* 65536)/Bw)

For Total Latency interfaces under 1 Gigabit use

Total Latency for bandwidths below 1 gigabit  = (Delay*65536)/10

For Total Latency interfaces above 1 Gigabit use

Total Latency for bandwidths above 1 gigabit = (107* 65536/10)/ Bw

Lastly once you have your Composite cost metric divide it by the RIB metric of 128. This is so that the 64-bit metric calculation can fit into the RIB.

1392640 / 128 = 10880 – This is what will be installed into the RIB


Some take aways

Although you can configure K values to produce varying routing behaviors, most configurations use only the delay/latency and bandwidth/throughput metrics by default so its best to keep K values to their defaults. Changing these could have a larger affect on more than just the EIGRP metric, for exmaple QoS will use these K values and if changed could have undesirable results.

It’s best to change the delay of the link to influence path selection, rather than changing the bandwidth. Changing the bandwidth could have a larger affect on more than just the EIGRP metrics.

K values still need to match between routers to form adjacency.